In The Twelfth Dynasty Egyptian Literature
A Reconstruction


Armour, Robert A. Gods and Myths of Ancient Egypt. Cairo: The American University in Cairo Press, 1986.

Armstrong, Karen. A History of God. NY: Alfred A Knopf, 1993.

Arnold, Dieter and Adela Oppenheim. “Re-excavating the Senwosret III Pyramid Complex at Dashur,” KMT: A Modern Journal of Ancient Egypt, Summer 1995.

Baines, John and Jaromir Malek. Atlas of Ancient Egypt. NY: Facts on File. 1994.

Bleeker, Dr. C.J. Hathor and Thoth. Leiden, E.J. Brill 1973.

Bloom, Harold. The Book of J (translated by David Rosenberg) NY: Vintage Books, a Division of Random House, 1990. Gives an original lively translation of the J strain of the earliest version of Genesis. Considers the J author to be female.

Bock, Emil. Moses: From the Mysteries of Egypt to the Judges of Israel. NY: Inner Traditions International, 1986. (Originally published in German under the title Moses und sein Zeitalter by Verlag Urachhaus.)

*Bratton, Fred G. Myths and Legends of the Ancient Near East. NY: Barnes & Noble Books, 1970.

Budge, E.A. Wallis. The Book of the Dead, English translation in three volumes. Chicago: Open Court Publishing Co. Ltd., 1901. Vol.I has the hieroglyphics. Some line drawings.

_____. An Egyptian Hieroglyphic Reading Book for Beginners. NY: Dover 1993 reprint of 1896 edition.

*_____. From Fetish to God in Ancient Egypt. Mineola, NY: Dover Publications Inc. 1934 (1988 unaltered republication.) Includes Legend of Khenemu and a 7 year famine p480, Legend of Shu and Gebb p438; Legend of Destruction of Mankind p463.

_____. The Gods of the Egyptians, Studies in Egyptian Mythology, NY: Dover, 1969 reprint of 1904 edition.

*_____. Legends of the Egyptian Gods, Hieroglyphic Texts and Translations. NY: Dover, 1994 reprint of 1912 edition.

Cambridge Ancient History ed. by J.B. Bury, FBA, S.A. Cook, LittD, F.E. Adcock, MA. Vol. I: Egypt and Babylonia to 1580BC. NY: Macmillan Company. 1923.

Cambridge Ancient History, 3rd edition, Vol. I, Part 2. Early History of the Middle East. Ed. I.E.S. Edwards, FBA, the late C.J. Gadd, FBA, & N.G.L. Hammond FBA. Cambridge at the University Press, 1971.

Cayce, Edgar. Circulating File: Extracts from the Edgar Cayce Readings: Bible, The Exodus. Virginia Beach, VA: ARE Press, 1971, 1993.

Cayce, Edgar Evans and Hugh Lynn Cayce. The Outer Limits of Edgar Cayce’s Power. NY: Harper & Row, 1971.

Church, W.H. Many Happy Returns: The Lives of Edgar Cayce. NY: Harper & Row, Publishers, 1984. Gives Cayce dates of Old Testament characters, and some past lives.

Clark, R. T. Rundle. Myth & Symbol in Ancient Egypt. NY: Grove Press, 1959.

David, A. Rosalie. The Ancient Egyptians. London, Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1982.

Daiches, David. Moses: The Man and His Vision. NY: Praeger Publishers, 1975. Map of possible routes of the Exodus: p84. Nice illustrations especially the Lippi painting of the crowd worshipping the flying “Golden calf” p253.

Delia, Robert D. “Khakaure Senwosret III: King and Man,” in KMT, A Modern Journal of Ancient Egypt, Summer 1995, p18-33. Essential, up-to-date, emphasizes Nubian aspects, good photos of statues of the king.

Desonie, Dana. Cosmic Collisions. NY: Henry Holt and Company, 1996. Has Forward by David H. Levy and Carolyn and Eugene Shoemaker who discovered the comet(s) which hit Jupiter in a spectacular display captured on tape July 16, 1994.

*Divan, Marguerite. Stories from Ancient Egypt. London: Burke, 1969. Includes “Satni’s adventure with the mummies” and “The story of Satni and his son, Senosiris.”

Eardman’s Handbook to the Bible ed. by David Alexander, Pat Alexander. London: Lion Publishing, c1973 (reprinted 1983). Color maps, photos, clear chronologies, puts Exodus at 1280BC, p119, with New Kingdom. Notes Sinuhe and Moses both fled to Madian.

Edgerton, William. “Chronology of the Twelfth Dynasty,” Journal of Near Eastern Studies, V.1, p307-314, 1942. Details some of the problems relating to the lengths of the reigns of Sesostris II, and Sesostris III.

*Egyptian literature: Comprising Egyptian Tales, Hymns, Llitanies, Invocations, The Book of the Dead and Cuneiform Writings. (revised ed.) NY: P.F. Collier & Son, 1901. Calls Sinuhe Sahehat.

*Erman, Adolf. Ancient Egyptian Poetry and Prose. Originally published: The Literature of the Ancient Egyptians. London: Methuen, 1927. Mineola, NY: Dover Publications, Inc. unabridged and unaltered reprint, 1995. (Translated from German by Aylward M. Blackman.) Includes Story of Sinuhe p14, Shipwrecked sailor p29, Herdsman p35, Kheops and the magicians p36, Deliverance of Mankind p47, Instructions of Amenemhet p72, Dispute with his soul p86, (Ipuwer) p92, Complaints of Khek . . . p108, Prophecy of Neferrohu p110, Complaints of the Peasant p116, Tale of the Two Brothers p150, Enchanted Prince p161, Exhortations and Warnings to Schoolboys (Satire of the Trades) p189.

Erman, Adolf. Life in Ancient Egypt. Trans. by H.M. Tirard. NY: Dover Publications, Inc. 1894 (1971 reprint) Nice line drawings.

Friedman, Richard Elliott. Who Wrote the Bible? NY: Harper & Row, Publications 1986 (1988). Clearly separates the J, E, D, and P authorship of the Pentateuch. Gives a chart of these authors line by line. Says Ezra was redactor at 458BC. Gives history of biblical research, discovery of doublets. Puts Exodus at 1200BC.

Freud, Sigmund. Moses and Monotheism. London: The Hogarth Press. 1939.

Gardiner, Sir Alan. Egypt of the Pharaohs. NY: Oxford University Press, 1964. Includes the kings of Egypt from Manetho, the king-lists, and the Monuments (Abydos list, Sakkara list, Turin Canon and Palermo Stone.)

*_____. Notes on the Story of Sinuhe. Paris (VIe) Librarie Honore Champion, Editeur, 1916. Elegant, essential translation. Includes the hieroglyphics of a few of the original Egyptian versions in parallel. Annotated profusely. Shows the “scribe of B error,” the two original versions that give different names to the welcomer pharaoh.

Goedicke, Hans. Story of the Herdsman. “Chronique D’Egypt” Tome XLV, No.89, Janvier 1970, p244-266. Offers copy of the 25 line tale in hieroglyphs with line by line translation.

Glenn, Mendel G. Jewish Tales and Legends (selected and translated by Mendel G. Glenn). NY: Hebrew Publishing Co., 1929.

*Griffiths, J. Gwyn. The Conflict of Horus and Seth. Liverpool University Press. 1960.

Grinspoon, David Harry. Venus Revealed. NY: Helix Books, 1997. Gives latest scientific information about the quirky planet.

Hancock, Graham. The Sign and the Seal. NY: Crown Publishing, 1992. Tells of his search for the Ark of the Covenant in Axum where it may be guarded by Falasha who are descendants of Solomon.

*Hart, George. Egyptian Myths. Austin: University of Texas Press, and British Museum Publications, 1992.

Hayes, William C. The Scepter of Egypt: A Background for the Study of the Egyptian Antiquities in The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Part I: From the earliest times to the end of the Middle Kingdom. Cambridge: Published for the Metropolitan Museum of Art by Harvard University Press, 1953.

Helck, W. et al (eds.) Lexikon der Agyptologie. (6 vols.) Wiesbaden. 1972-. Parts in English, German and French. Authoritative, exhaustive, essential. Lists texts, and translations available.

Hitching, Francis. The Mysterious World: An Atlas of the Unexplained. NY: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1979. Offers charts of Velikovsky theories, with map, chronology and his suggestions since proven.

Hobson, Christine. The World of the Pharaohs. NY: Thames and Hudson Inc., 1987. Color photos, good chart of the Saqquara complex of Djoser and Imhotep p64.

Horn, Siegfrid H. “What We Don’t Know About Moses and the Exodus.” Biblical Archaeology Review, June 1977, p22-31. Reviews three books about Moses and Exodus.

James, T.G.H. An Introduction to Ancient Egypt. NY: Harper & Row, Publishers. 1979.

_____. Ancient Egypt: The Land and it’s Legacy. Austin: University of Texas Press (and British Museum Publications), 1988.

Jordan, Michael. Encyclopedia of Gods: Over 2,500 Deities of the World. NY: Facts on File, Inc., 1993.

Josephus, Flavius. The Complete Works of Josephus. (translated by Wm. Whiston) Grand Rapids MI: Kregel Publications, 1993.

Keller, Werner. The Bible as History (2nd Revised ed.) NY: William Morrow & Co., Inc. 1981. Best seller. Gives conventional chronology. Puts Sinuhe, p77, at the time of Abraham in Canaan. But notes flight similar to Moses’.

Kirsch, Jonathan. Moses: A Life. New York: Ballantine Books, 1998.

Kozminsky, Isidore. The Magic and Science of Jewels and Stones. NY: G P Putnam’s Sons, 1922.

Krajenke, Robert W. A Million Years to the Promised Land, Edgar Cayce’s story of the Old Testament, Genesis through Deuteronomy (Vol. I of 3). NY: Bantam Books, c1973. Gives Cayce readings related to the Old Testament with explanations.

Kugel, James l. The Bible As It Was. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1997.

Larousse Encyclopedia of Mythology. London: Hamlyn, 1968.

Leach, Maria ed. Funk & Wagnalls Standard Dictionary of Folklore, Mythology and Legend (in 2 vols.) NY: Funk & Wagnalls, 1949.

*Lichtheim, Miriam. Ancient Egyptian Literature, Vol.I: Old and Middle Kingdom; Vol.II New Kingdom. Los Angeles: University of California Press. 1975 paperback edition. This includes in Vol. I: Unas Pyramid texts p29; Instructions of King Amenemhet I p135; Prophecies of Neferti p139; Complaints of Khakheperre-sonb p145; Admonitions of Ipuwer p149; Dispute between a man and his Ba p163; Eloquent Peasant p1; Satire of the trades p184; Tale of the Shipwrecked Sailor p211; Three tales of wonder p215; Story of Sinuhe p222. Translations based on the work Erman, Gardiner, Lefebvre Wente and Wilson.

Lehner, Mark. The Egyptian Heritage: based on the Edgar Cayce readings. Virginia Beach, VA: ARE Press, 1974.

Levenson, Jon D. Sinai & Zion: and Entry into the Jewish Bible. NY: Harper & Row, 1985.

Lurker, Manfred. The Gods and Symbols of Ancient Egypt: an illustrated dictionary. London: Thames and Hudson, Ltd. 1980.

*Mackenzie, Donald A. Egyptian Myth and Legend. NY: Bell Publishing Company, 1907 (reprint 1978). This is the only book found that had picture of Sinuhe in it, even though it was modern. He is depicted in color from the back fighting the hero of the Retenu.

*Maspero, Sir G. Popular Stories of Ancient Egypt (translated by Mrs. C.H.W. Johns from 4th French Edition) Revised. NY: G.P. Putnam’s Sons, 1915. Includes Story of the two brothers p1; King Khufu and the Magicians p21; Lamentations of the Fellah p43; Memoirs of Sinuhit p68; Shipwrecked Sailor p98; Adventures of Satni-Khamois and his son Senosiris p144; How Satni-Khamois triumphed over the Assyrians p170; Exploits of Sesostris p180; Doomed Prince p185; Cycle of Petubastis, High Emprise for Cuirass p217 and High Emprise for the throne of Amon p243. Lively, readable descriptions of original sources, footnotes.

Mertz, Barbara. Temples, Tombs and Hieroglyphics: A Popular History of Ancient Egypt. NY: Dodd, Mead & Co., 1978.

Murname, William. Ancient Egyptian Co-Regencies, Studies in Ancient Oriental Civilizations, No.40. Oriental Institute of Chicago, 1977.

Oxford Companion to the Bible, Ed. by Bruce M. Metzger & Michael Coogan. NY: Oxford University Press. 1993. P210: “The Bible itself is virtually devoid of concrete detail that would enable the Exodus to be dated securely . . .”

*Parkinson, R.B. “Teachings, Discourses and Tales from the Middle Kingdom” in Middle Kingdom Studies ed. By Stephen Quirke. Sia Publishing (England) 1991, p91-122. Offers a catalog and bibliographic information on each Middle Kingdom tale.

Parkinson, R.B. The Tale of Sinuhe and Other Ancient Egyptian Poems 1940 – 1640 BC, Oxford World Classics, Oxford University Press, 1998.

*_____. Voices from Ancient Egypt: An Anthology of Middle Kingdom Writings. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1991. Quotes Ptahhotep, from Old Kingdom: “It is good to speak to the Future: it shall listen.” A chronology positions the tales into each reign. The scholarly bibliography lists references for each tale, however most are German or French.

Perdu, Oliver. “Khenemet-Nefer-Hedjet: Une princesse et deux reines du Moyen Empire,” Revue d’egyptologie, 1977, Vol 29, p68-85.

Petrie, Sir William Flinders. A History of Egypt. London 1924.

*Pritchard, James E. Editor. Ancient Near Eastern Texts Relating to the Old Testament. Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press. 1969 3rd ed. Egyptian translations by John A. Wilson. Includes Repulsing the Dragon p11; Story of Sinuhe p18; Tradition of seven lean years in Egypt p31; Instructions of King Amenemhet I p418; Satire of the Trades p432.

Quirke, Stephen. Ancient Egyptian Religion. London: British Museum Press, 1992.

_____. The British Museum Book of Ancient Egypt. London: Thames and Hudson, 1992. P118-147: Language and Writing chapter helpful on Twelfth Dynasty stories.

_____. Hieroglyphs and the Afterlife in Ancient Egypt. University of Oklahoma, 1996. P104 offers photo and explanation of the jewel fish pendant worn by young girls in their hair, and p107 parallels the serpent staff to Moses’ and Aaron’s.

_____. Who Were the Pharaohs?: A History of Their Names with a List of Cartouches. NY: Dover Publications, Inc., 1990. Explains royal naming conventions. P52-54 offers the Twelfth Dynasty kings names with highlights of each reign.

Redford, Donald B. Egypt, Canaan, and Israel in Ancient Times. Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press. 1992. Scholarly, gives dates of theories p258-259. Crypto footnote-260 on Pi-Ramesses. Scorns Velikovsky. Suggests Tefnakht of Sais (724-717BC) as candidate to be Moses.

_____. A Study of the Biblical Story of Joseph (Genesis 37-50). Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1970. Tells about Sinuhe’s evasiveness about the murder. Intro gives quote about breakthroughs sometimes found by amateurs, where scholars had failed.

Robinson, Lytle W. The Great Pyramid and It’s Builders. Virginia Beach VA, ARE Press, 1975.

Roberts, Alison. Hathor Rising: The Power of the Goddess in Ancient Egypt. Rochester VT, Inner Traditions International, 1997. Essential description of the goddess.

Roche, Richard. Egyptian Myths and the RaTa Story. Virginia Beach. A.R.E. Press, 1975. Notes the Destruction of Mankind Egyptian myth.

Rohl, David M. Pharaohs and Kings: A Biblical Quest. NY: Crown, 1995. Previous title: A Test of Time. Was a 3-part TV program also. Nice book, wrong conclusion. Puts Joseph during the Twelfth Dynasty reign of Amenemhet III. Puts Moses during reign of Dudimose of the Thirteenth Dynasty at 1448BC.

Rosemberg, Joel. “Biblical Narrative,” in Back to the Source: Reading the Classic Jewish Texts ed. By Barry W. Holtz. NY: Touchstone, 1984. P31-81.

Sanderfur, Glenn. The Lives of the Master. Virginia Beach, VA: A.R.E. Press, 1988, 1971. This book uses the Cayce readings and gives the mentioned past lives of Jesus. The relevant ones to the period discussed here include Joseph and Joshua.

Sarna, Nahum M. Exploring Exodus: the Heritage of Biblical Israel. NY: Schochen Books, 1986.

Shaw, Ian and Paul Nicholson. The Dictionary of Ancient Egypt. NY: Harry N. Abrams, Copyright 1995 The Trustees of the British Museum. Clear, offers sources after each entry.

Silverman, David P., general editor. Ancient Egypt. NY: Oxford University Press, 1997.

*Simpson, William Kelly ed. The Literature of Ancient Egypt: An Anthology of Stories, Instructions and Poetry. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1972.

*Spence, Lewis. Ancient Egyptian Myths and Legends. NY: Dover, 1990 reprint of 1915 edition.

Te Velde, H. Seth, God of Confusion: A Study of His Role in Egyptian Mythology and Religion. Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1967.

Troy, Lana. Patterns of Queenship in Ancient Egyptian Myth and History. Upsala, Sweden: Stockholm Press, 1986. Lists all the important women known in Egypt, artifacts, titles, and relationships to the kings.

Velikovsky, Immanuel. Ages in Chaos. NY: Doubleday & Company, 1952. Moves Solomon’s Sheba to be 600 years more recent, and identifies her as Hathshepsut. But he basically ignored Moses.

_____. Earth in Upheaval. NY: Doubleday & Company Inc. 1955. Cites other ancient civilization’s records of celestial catastrophes.

_____. Oedipus and Akhenaton. Identifies these two individuals.

_____. Worlds in Collision. NY: Dell Publishing Co. c1950 (1965 ed.). Explains his Venus as comet that was ejected from Jupiter and took an orbit that repeatedly terrorized the earth. The final hit, when the earth and Venus bounced atmospheres was the historic event known as the passover. Did not give much space to Moses.

Watterson, Barbara. The Gods of Ancient Egypt. NY: Facts on File Publications, 1984.

Wright, Ruth V. and Robert L. Chadbourne. Gems and Minerals of the Bible. NY: Harper & Row Publishers, 1970.

Wegner, Josef. “Old and New Excavations at the Abydene Complex of Senwosret III,” KMT: A Modern Journal of Ancient Egypt, Summer, 1995, p58-71.

Wilson, Colin. From Atlantis to the Sphinx. NY: From International Publishing Corporation, 1997. New Age review of current discoveries. Includes Velikovsky and Cayce as notable.

Zacharias, H.C.E., Proto History. London: B. Herder Book Co., 1947.

[Main] [Order] [Contact]
[Selected Twelfth Dynasty tales compared to Moses’ events] (rev 1-2008)
[Preface] [The Reconstruction]
[Trees and Chronologies] [Glossary]
[Appendix] [Bibliography]

© 2010 Aris M. Hobeth. All rights reserved.